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Three-Element Drum Level Control-:
In most drum level control applications, the two-element drum level control will maintain the required water /steam interface level-even under moderate load changes. However, if an unstable feed water system exists exhibiting a variable feed heater-to-drum pressure differential, or if large unpredictable steam demands are frequent, a three-element drum level control scheme should be considered as implied from the above information, this control strategy supplies control of feed-water flow in relationship to stream flow.
The performance of the three-element control system during transient conditions makes it very useful for general industrial and utility boiler applications. It handles loads exhibiting wide and rapid rates of change. Plants which exhibit load characteristics of this type are those with mixed, continuous, and batch processing demands. It also recommended where normal load characteristics are fairly steady; but upsets can be sudden, unpredictable and/or a significant portion of the load.
Feed water Control
The basic control strategy implemented is a three-element system using drum level, steam flow and feed water flow to regulate the feed water control valve. Both accuracy and stability are improved through the addition of density compensation calculations for both drum level and steam flow. Since flow measurements are typically inaccurate at low values, feed water flow is regulated only on drum level (single element control) during start up and low load operation. The transfer between single and three-element operation is of course both automatic and bump less.
Steam Temperature Control
The Super heat steam temperature control loop is straightforward, regulating the superheat spray water/air by control valve to maintain the main steam outlet temperature. For more dynamic steam temperature circuits, temperature outlet Temperature is also measured and controlled.
Furnace Pressure Control
The furnace pressure control loop regulates the ID fan inlet vanes to maintain the furnace pressure set point. The furnace pressure signal is the process variable for the furnace pressure controller/PLC, and the ID fan is operated in coordination with the FD fan. Like the FD fan, appropriate interlocking logic is provided for the ID fan inlet vane for use during starting/stopping of the fan - also per NFPA requirements.
Steam Header Pressure Control
The Steam Header pressure control system monitors the common steam header pressure to generate a load demand for each of the boilers. To provide stable control and uniform response the control system recognizes each boilerâï¿½ï¿½s contribution to the steam load and its ability to respond to load demand requests.
Combustion control regulates the fuel and air for the boiler, making it the most complex and important of the control loops. The fuel/air mixture must be just right under all dynamic load conditions. Too much air results in decreased efficiency, while too little air is unsafe and even less efficient. To insure the proper ratio of fuel and air, the controls incorporate both fuel/air cross limiting and O2 trim.
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